Oregon Court Endorses Broad Definition of “Property Damage”2020-04-23T00:25:14+00:00
Oregon Court Endorses Broad Definition of “Property Damage”

In a recent case, the Oregon District Court adopted a liberal interpretation of “property damage.” The Oregon Shakespeare Festival Association (OSF) suffered a loss during its season: nearby wildfires caused smoke to infiltrate a partially outdoor theater where performances were being held, necessitating cancellations. Oregon Shakespeare Festival Association v. Great American Insurance Company, 2016 WL 3267247 at 1-3 (D. Or. June 7, 2016).

OSF’s insurance policy covered “direct physical loss or damage” to its property and the “actual loss of Business Income” caused by such loss or damage. Id. at 4. Thus, to get coverage for the business losses it sustained by cancelling performances, OSF had to show that the smoke infiltration, the undisputed reason for the cancellations, was “direct physical loss or damage” to property.

OSF argued that “physical loss or damage” means “any injury or harm to a natural or material thing.” Id. at 5. Great American Insurance, OSF’s insurer, argued that air is not “property,” and that covered damage must be “physical”—not just smoky air. Id. at 5-6. The court agreed with OSF, holding that Great American’s definition was too restrictive: there was nothing in the policy, the court said, to suggest contaminated indoor air is not covered, nor could Great American explain why air is not “physical.” Id. The court explained:

[W]ildfire smoke infiltrated the interior of the theater, making it uninhabitable and unusable for holding performances … Even though the loss or damage was not structural or permanent, the property experienced a loss of “essential functionality” … Based on the case law, as discussed above, the Elizabethan Theatre sustained “physical loss or damage to property” when the wildfire smoke infiltrated the theater and rendered it unusable for its intended purpose.

The court’s analysis suggests that a defective condition indirectly affecting property—i.e., a condition preventing the intended use of property even if it does not necessarily damage the property itself—is “physical loss or damage.” This broad interpretation has implications for both first party and commercial general liability insurance claims, and could trigger coverage in a wider array of contexts – in first party and third party liability claims, including construction defect lawsuits. For example, under this interpretation, wetting of gypsum board sufficient to affect its supportive function would be covered property damage. Even active leaks could qualify as property damage, since water intrusion in wall assemblies or interior living spaces is analogous to wildfire smoke in a partially enclosed outdoor theater. Ball Janik will continue to track the development of the state of the law on this issue. We suggest that those who may have suffered losses along these lines consult with counsel, to explore available insurance coverage options.



Ball Janik LLP was founded in 1982 with six lawyers and a four-person support staff in Portland, Oregon. Since our firm’s inception, we have expanded our capabilities, our professionals, and geographic footprint. What started as a firm focused in real property and land use (known then as Ball Janik & Novack), has grown to include the insights of a team of 30-plus attorneys, with a combined six centuries of experience, and capabilities including Real Estate and Land Use, Construction Defect, Commercial Litigation, Insurance Recovery, Construction and Design, Employment, Finance and Corporate, Public Agencies and Schools, and Community Associations. With offices in Florida and Oregon, our regional growth has earned us a national reputation for upholding the rights of our clients.

Ball Janik LLP has been recognized by Chambers USA, U.S. News & World Report and Best Lawyers®, The Best Lawyers in America©, and Corporate International. Ball Janik LLP’s success and integrity have repeatedly made it one of “Oregon’s Most Admired Professional Firms,” according to the Portland Business Journal’s survey results of CEOs throughout the region.

Heather J. Oden
Oregon , Portland
No Blog Tiles found.